Robinson R22

- Manufacturer: Robinson Helicopter
- Tripulation: 1 pilot e 1 passenger
- Maximum speed: 180 km/h

The Robinson R22 is a small helicopter for two people and was produced by the company Robinson Helicopter, the R22 became the standard helicopter for pilot training. As a characteristic, it features a "Y" -shaped, cyclic control lever for easy cockpit access. It uses a horizontally opposed 4-cylinder engine, powered by aviation gasoline.

Security
Even though it is a small helicopter, the R-22 does not lose safety. There is nothing that could directly cause a critical problem to the flight of the helicopter. By strictly following the manual, the rotary wing aircraft becomes the safest means of transportation ever invented, second only to the elevators. Contrary to what many people imagine, the helicopter can glide after an engine crash. This maneuver is called self-rotation. The R-22 has a system called Free Wheel Clutch, with the function of disconnecting the engine from the drive shaft if it rotates slower than the rotors. The same thing happens on a bicycle, when we stop pedaling the ratchet it releases the wheel to rotate freely in one direction, but if it tries to rotate in the opposite direction or slower than the ratchet, it will lock and transfer the force to the pedals. The 2 rotors are rigidly connected by a drive shaft. In case of locking the tail rotor by shock with some object or bird, it has shear bolts, which cut off and eventually disconnect the failed tail rotor from the drive shaft, leaving the main rotor to rotate freely. After the tail rotor has stopped, it is continued to the flight in auto-rotation. The engine of the R-22 has dual magnet system, totally independent. Both are tested before flight by the pilot.

 

Robinson R44 Raven II

- Manufacturer: Robinson Helicopter
- Tripulation: 1 pilot e 3 passengers
- Maximum speed: 210 km/h

The Robinson R-44 is a small-piston single-engine helicopter designed for executive, touring and tourism and for journalistic overhauls, designed and manufactured in large scale in the United States from the 1990s by the Robinson Helicopter Company , which is currently one of the largest helicopter manufacturers in the world.

The small Robinson R-44 is powered by a Lycoming IO-540 piston engine and has the ability to comfortably transport a pilot and three passengers on typical missions within metropolitan areas, landing and taking off from helipads and heliports, and also for intercity trips.

The first version of the R-44, the simplest, called the R-44 Astro, was launched in the 1990s, and a few years later the R-44 Raven was introduced with the introduction of hydraulic flight controls, reducing the need for pilot strength to control the aircraft. The latest and most modern version is the R-44 Raven II, launched in 2003, with the introduction of the Lycoming engine's electronic fuel injection system, manufactured by Textron.

Overall, the operating cost per flown kilometer of a three-passenger single-engine piston helicopter is greater than the operating cost per flown kilometer of a fixed-piston wing aircraft also capable of carrying three passengers. However, the helicopter has absolutely unsurpassed operational flexibility and versatility to operate in metropolitan areas or between nearby cities with intense car traffic.

For example, the metropolitan region of São Paulo and other neighboring cities have one of the largest concentrations of helicopters for executive use in the world.

In the 1990s, the Robinson Helicopter Company used the small Robinson R-22 helicopter as the basis for the Robinson R-44, with a large number of changes that made the R-44 a different aircraft model. The Lycoming IO-540 engine with electronic injection of the R-44 Raven II is about 20 HP more powerful than the Lycoming IO-540 version with carburetor of the R-44 Astro and the R-44 Raven.

Since its inception in the 1970s, the Robinson Helicopter Company has manufactured over 10,000 helicopter units of various models, the R44 is the top-selling aircraft model of the company, with more than 5,000 units manufactured.

The operating cost per flown kilometer of single-engine piston helicopters is less than the operating cost per kilometer flown from turbine single-engine helicopters.

 

Bell 206 (Jet Ranger 3)

- Manufacturer: Bell
- Tripulation: 1 pilot e 4 passengers
- Maximum speed: 222 km/h

The Bell 206 Jet Ranger originated in the early 1960s to participate in a US Army bidding for a lightweight observation helicopter.

Despite initially losing the contract, the aircraft entered the civilian market in 1967.

It later entered service in the army and US Marines, where he gained prominence as a trainer and utility.

The basic design remained the same, but the aircraft already underwent upgrades like the 206B Jet Ranger II in 1971 and the 206B-3 JetRanger III in 1977, with a new tail rotor and a more powerful engine.

 

Squirrel

- Manufacturer: Helibrás
- Tripulation: 1 pilot e 5 passengers
- Maximum speed: 245 km/h

The Eurocopter Ecureuil or Squirrel is a light helicopter developed by Aérospatiale, today Eurocopter. It is assembled in Brazil by Helicópteros do Brasil S.A (Helibrás).

According to Helibras the nationalization is 43%.

It represents a large part of the Brazilian civilian market, but it is also the main helicopter operated by police organizations.

It is used by the three armed forces with varying functions like training, utility and attack.

 

Agusta

- Manufacturer: Agusta Westland
- Tripulation: 1 pilot e 6 passengers
- Maximum speed: 285 km/h

Agusta (currently part of the AgustaWestland group) is an Italian helicopter assembler.

It is headquartered in Varese, a production unit in Cascina Costa and is a subsidiary of Finmeccanica.

In July 2000 Finmeccanica and GKN plc decided to merge their helicopter-producing subsidiaries (Agusta and GKN-Westland Helicopters), forming AgustaWestland.

 

      

 

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